Textile machinery is a general designation of various mechanical equipment that processes natural fibers or chemical fibers into required textiles. Textile machinery in a broad sense also includes chemical machinery for the production of chemical fibers. Textile machinery is the production means and material basis of the textile industry. Its technical level, quality and manufacturing cost are directly related to the development of the textile industry.
In the design of mechanical products, in addition to using common parts, common devices and common unit machines as much as possible, people also consciously modify the structural layout and implement the principle of generalization as much as possible. The standardization, serialization and generalization of textile machinery have begun to cross the boundaries between countries, such as drafting mechanism parts, knitting needles, needle cloth, etc., many of which have adopted the same parameters.
The main public hazards caused by textile machinery in use are noise, dust, toxic and harmful gases and waste water containing harmful substances. The reasons include equipment factors and process factors. Noise is a kind of mechanical vibration wave with air as the carrier. In most workshops of textile mills, especially in weaving workshops, mechanical noise is very high.
The measures that can be taken in textile machinery include: lining the inner wall of the housing with silencing materials, replacing the chain transmission and gear transmission with flexible toothed transmission belt, improving the accuracy and dynamic balance of moving parts, and installing shock absorption washers between high-speed parts and the frame. However, some noise elimination measures also bring about negative factors, such as inconvenient operation and maintenance after installing sound proof cover. Creative improvement of mechanical design is a fundamental measure to reduce noise. For example, the noise of shuttleless looms (see weaving) has gradually approached the requirements of environmental protection. In order to reduce the dust emission during the operation of the equipment, the design of the spinning machine can be improved, such as improving the sealing of the cover, or the air conditioning device can be used to absorb the dusty air in the workshop for centralized filtration, and then the fresh air can be sent back to the workshop; Or two-stage dust filtering equipment shall be used for cotton cleaning, carding, combing and other machines to filter the discharged dusty air and recover the fallen cotton, so as to make the air meet the provisions of environmental protection regulations.